Passed in 1998, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) acts as a digital guardian for US children under 13. Enforced in 2000, COPPA keeps a watchful eye on how websites and online services collect data from young users. This protection extends beyond US borders, applying to any child accessing American-based platforms.

COPPA holds website operators accountable. It demands clear explanations of data practices in privacy policies, along with a secure system for obtaining parental permission before collecting any personal information. This ensures children’s online experiences are safe and private. Additionally, COPPA restricts targeted marketing toward this younger demographic. While COPPA allows parental consent for data collection, obtaining it can be complex and expensive. As a result, many platforms, especially social media sites, simply limit access altogether for users under 13.

Recognizing the ever-changing digital world, a proposed update, nicknamed COPPA 2.0, is making its rounds in Congress. This update aims to raise the age limit for COPPA protections from 13 to 16, reflecting the evolving online landscape and the growing complexities young users face. This version uses a more engaging and metaphorical tone, referring to COPPA as a “digital guardian” and “watchful eye.” It also highlights the potential challenges of compliance for platforms and introduces the proposed update as “making its rounds in Congress” for a more dynamic feel.

A Look at COPPA’s Background and Regulations

In the burgeoning landscape of 1990s electronic commerce, concerns over data collection practices and the impact on user privacy, particularly among children under 13, began to surface. The Center for Media Education petitioned the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to probe KidsCom’s data practices, resulting in the issuance of the “KidsCom Letter” and a call for parental awareness and consent, culminating in the formulation of COPPA.

COPPA Regulations

As the new millennium dawned, regulatory measures like the Drivers Privacy Protection Act set precedents for governmental oversight, leading to a period of adjustment and resistance within the industry. COPPA’s initial rollout faced challenges, with stakeholders grappling with evolving guidelines and enforcement demands, underscored by the FTC’s mandate to target violations.

Mandatory reviews in 2005 affirmed COPPA and PECR efficacy, paving the way for FTC’s enforcement authority and the establishment of “safe harbor” provisions. These provisions aimed to incentivize self-regulation within the industry, with various programs gaining approval, though scrutiny heightened over time, leading to withdrawals and closer oversight.

In 2011, proposed revisions to COPPA reflected changing dynamics, broadening the scope of data collection and introducing stringent requirements for data retention and third-party safeguards. The act’s applicability extends to commercial websites targeting or knowingly interacting with children under 13, with exemptions for most non-profits, albeit with caveats regarding commercial activities.

Central to COPPA’s implementation is the concept of “verifiable parental consent,” determined by the FTC’s sliding scale regulation, which evaluates data collection methods and usage intentions. As online landscapes continue to evolve, COPPA remains a pivotal framework in safeguarding children’s privacy online.

COPPA Compliance Requirements: Protecting Children’s Data Online

In 2012, the FTC hit the refresh button on COPPA, cranking up the protections for kids under 13 online. Here’s the download on the new rules that took effect in July 2013:

Protecting children's data online
  • Privacy Policy Power Up Websites and online services had to create clear and comprehensive privacy policies explaining how they collect info from young users.
  • Parental Permission Perks Up: Before collecting, using, or sharing a kid’s data, websites now needed a thumbs-up from a parent (with some exceptions).
  • Data Detox for Kids: Websites couldn’t hoard a child’s info forever. They had to keep it only for as long as needed and then securely delete it.
  • No More Info Fishing: Websites couldn’t pressure kids to give up more information than what’s actually needed for them to participate in online activities.

The FTC also got smarter about figuring out how old users were. If a website asked for a birthdate or questions that hinted at age (like “What grade are you in?”), they were considered to have “actual knowledge” of a user’s age and COPPA applied.

Verifying parental consent also got an upgrade. While some companies like Microsoft used a small fee to confirm parents (donated to a good cause!), the FTC even approved a “face match to verified photo identification” system in 2015 – basically, a selfie to prove you’re a real parent!

This version uses informal language internet slang (“download”, “thumbs-up”) and emphasizes the benefits for both kids and parents. It also injects humor with the “info fishing” reference.

COPPA’s Reach: Does it Apply Beyond US Borders

The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) acts like a digital nanny, keeping a watchful eye on how websites and online services treat children’s data. The US government, through the FTC, claims COPPA’s authority extends worldwide as long as the service targets US users or collects data from American kids.

The FTC, like a global ambassador for online safety, works with international counterparts to build bridges and share best practices. This includes formal agreements, sharing information, and even hosting exchange programs (think of it as a summer camp for international “digital nannies”).

The internet may be a borderless world, but enforcing COPPA overseas can be tricky. Despite these challenges, the FTC has shown it can flex its muscles. Remember the $5.7 million fine it imposed on ByteDance, a Chinese company? That serves as a reminder that even foreign companies with US users can’t escape COPPA’s watchful gaze.

This version uses a metaphor of COPPA as a “digital nanny” and the FTC as a global ambassador. It injects humor with the “summer camp” reference and emphasizes the power of COPPA with the example of the fine against ByteDance.


Over the years, COPPA has evolved to address emerging challenges in the digital landscape, including the introduction of stricter compliance requirements and expanded definitions of personal information. Despite primarily targeting entities under US jurisdiction, COPPA’s global impact is evident through its reach to foreign companies with significant US user bases. While enforcement beyond US borders poses practical challenges, recent actions against international firms highlight the FTC’s commitment to upholding COPPA’s principles worldwide. As technology continues to advance, COPPA remains an essential framework for empowering parents and protecting children’s online data privacy.